About the Glossary
All the terms are presented in Mandarin first using the pinyin system of romanization. This system was declared as the official system for the romanization of Chinese by the United Nations in 1995. Old spellings, usually from unsystematic Cantonese phonetic transliterations, are in parenthesis. When there are no parenthesized words, the pinyin and old terms are equivalent. Note that the Chinese language has different tones that are not reflected in the spelling of the words. Some words may have the same spelling here, but different tones when spoken so the definitions are different.
Acupuncture: (On Mandarin: Zhenci liaofa) One of the most widely known therapies from Traditional Chinese Medicine. In Acupuncture therapy, needles are used to stimulate precise points on the body to rebalance or unblock the flow of vital energy within the body. A related form of therapy, Acupressure, uses finger pressure or massage instead of needles to accomplish the same goal.
Aikido: “Way of Harmonious Energy.” A Japanese internal martial art founded by Morihei Ueshiba that emphasizes the use of internal strength in controlling the opponent’s momentum through techniques of locking and throwing. Strikes are not emphasized and Aikido movements do not meet force with force.
A mi tou fo (O Lay Toe Fut): Buddhist greeting, a phonetic of Amitabha.
An (On): Press, push down
An tou (On Tao): Head spring
Ao bu (Ow Bo): Twist stance
Ba gua (Bat Gwah): Eight diagrams
Ba gua zhang (Pa Kua Chang): “Eight Trigram Palm.” An internal martial art which emphasizes the use of internal strength in close fighting with circular footwork and body movements. Baguazhang, or Bagua, is based on the Classic of Changes or Yi Jing (I-Ching) and is well known for its fast, evasive footwork, intricate coiling and numerous palm strikes.
Bai gong bu (Ban Gung Bo): Bow stance with heel raised
Bang shou (Bong Sao): Wing arm block
Ba xian (Baht Seen): Eight Immortals. Also Zuibaxian (Joei Baht Seen) Drunk Eight Immortals. Characters from Chinese mythology.
Bian tui (Lun Wan Toy): Roundhouse kick
Bing qi (Bing Hey): Weapon.
Bi sai (Bey Choy): Competition, contest
Bo (Po): Parry, brush aside
Bo shou (Fak sao): Sweeping arm to strike open hand
Buddha: “Enlightened One.” The Buddha refers to an Indian sage by the name of Siddhartha Gautama who lived from 560-480 BC. (see Buddhism below)
Buddhism: (In Mandarin: Fojiao): An Indian and Chinese philosophy discovered by The Buddha.
Bu Hao (Um Ho): Not Good
Cai (Chai): Pluck, pull
Cai jiao (Chai Geuk): Front toe kick with slap
Ce chua tui (Juk Dun Toy): Side thrust kick
Ce ti tui (Juk Yee Toy): Side kick
Ce shou fan (Juk Sun Fan): Cartwheel
Chan (Sim): Zen
Chan qiao (Chan Kiu): Spade bridge
Chen qiao (Chum Kiu): Sinking bridge
Chan si jing (Chan Si Bong) :”Silk-Reeling Practice” or “Spiral-Power Practice.” A set of exercises peculiar to Chen-style Taijiquan used to develop the coordination and strength that form the basis of internal strength. See Silk Reeling.
Chen shou (Chum Sao): Wrist pushing down low block
Chen Jia Taijiquan (Chan Gar Tai Gik Kune): Chen Family Tai Chi Chuan. Attributed to Chen Wang Ting, this style of Taijiquan developed as the secret style of the Chen family of the village of Chenjiagou in Henan province. Believed to be between 300 and 400 years old, the Chen style is widely acknowledged to be the ancestor of the other major styles of Taijiquan. Chen style is popularly characterized by low stances, overtly visible coiling and distinctive power releases or fajing.
Chin Na: See Qin na
Chuai (Chai): Stamp foot, kick with heel
Chuai tui (Chai Toy): Sidekick or stomp kick
Chuan (Chuen): Thrust
Circle Walking: A skill-development exercise, or gong, used in several internal Martial Arts but especially emphasized in Baguazhang. Like Zhan Zhuang or standing gongs, circle walking develops posture, coordination and internal strength, but has the added benefit that it helps develop movement skills at the same time.
Coiling: The spiral body movement that is characteristic of some internal martial arts. The coiling movement is the natural expression of spiral energy being transferred from the legs and waist to the upper extremities.
Confucianism: (In Mandarin Ru; Cantonese Ro)
A philosophical system founded on the teachings of the Chinese sage Confucius.
Confucius: A Chinese sage who lived from 551-479 BC and founded Confucianism.
Da (Dai): Big
Da lu (Ta Lu): “Big Roll Back.” A two-person Taijiquan exercise used to develop the corner powers (Cai, Lieh, Zhou, and Kao). In some styles such as Chen-style Taijiquan, Dalu is considered to be a Push Hands drill, whereas in others, such as Yang-style Taijiquan, it is treated as an exercise distinct from Push Hands.
Da qiao (Dahp Kiu): Joining bridge
Dan tian (Dan Tim): The region just below the navel, center of qi power where deep breathing is directed. Lit. “red field” A Daoist term referring to a center of energy located approximately two inches below the navel and inside the lower abdomen. The location roughly corresponds to the center of mass of a person standing in a natural posture, hence it is often referred to as the “center of being.” In the internal Martial Arts, Qi is considered to be stored in the Dantian. In the Chinese Classics, the Dantian is referred to as the place where one produces the elixir of immortality.
Dan (Darn): Single
Dao (Do): Also Tao. The way.
Dao jiao (Do Gow): Taoism. A Chinese philosophical and spiritual system, founded on the principles of the Dao De Jing written by Lao Tzu. Dao literally means “the Way.”
Diao shou (Ngow Sao): Hooking hand
Ding bu (Ding Bo): Also Ding Bo Mah. T-stance, empty stance or cat stance.
Duan (Tun): Short, close
Duan (Dun): Rank, grade
Eight Trigrams: See Ba gua. The Bagua are the basis of the Classic of Changes or Yi Jing (I Ching) Each of the trigrams has an associated martial movement, and are represented in many forms of Kung Fu including Baguazhang, Taijiquan and Praying Mantis. The movements are: ward off (peng), roll back (lu), press (ji), push (an), shoulder stroke (kao), elbow stroke (zhou), pull (cai) and rip open (lie).
Er zi qian yang ma (Yee Gee Kim Yeung Mah): Triangle stance. Lit. “two-shaped character, squeeze the goat or withdraw the testicles, horse”
E mei Shan (O Mei San): A Buddhist holy mountain of China in Sichuan Province. Lit. “high, eyebrow peaceful mountain”
External (In Mandarin: Wai): Referring to the use of muscular force or mechanical energy in the physical body.
Fa (Faht): Skill, method
Fa jing (Fa Ging): explosive energy, exert strength. The explosive release of strength or power that was previously stored. Especially emphasized in the martial aspects of Taijiquan, fajing is classified as the use of internal strength to produce a powerful strike, whip, or push.
Five Elements (In Mandarin: Wu Xing) A system in Chinese philosophy based on the observations of the interacting processes of the natural world. In the Five Element system, distinctions can be made between five dynamic processes, functions and characteristics: Water, Fire, Wood, Metal and Earth. Each of the elements relates to other elements through three cycles: the Shen Cycle or system of mutual production or promotion; the Ke Cycle or system of mutual destruction or control; and the Cosmological Cycle or mirror of the human body.
Fo jiao (Fut Gow): See Buddhism
Form (In Mandarin: Taolu) A formally defined posture, movement, or set of movements used to teach coordination and technique to a student of Kung Fu. The basic postures, movements and techniques of a Martial Art are often collected into a form or group of forms for ease of practice and memorization. A group of formal movements may also be called a set. Often called by the Japanese term Kata in the U.S.A.
Fu shou (Fook Sao): Controlling hand
Fu tou tui (Fu Tao Toy): Axe kick
Gong (Kung or Gung): “Work.” A practice or exercise used in Kung Fu to develop a skill or “power.” There are many kinds of gongs, both internal (neigong) and external (waigong), leading to many different kinds of skills or powers.
Gong bu (Gung Bo): Also Gung Chin Mah. Bow stance
Gong fu (Kung Fu): Also Kungfu, Gung Fu. Time, workmanship, skill, art, effort. A common generic term for any Martial Art that originated in China. “Kung Fu” is a comparatively modern term — it has only been used in the 20th century. The classical Chinese terms for Martial Arts include wushu, wuyi, quanfa and quanshu.
Guan (Kwoon): Literally Hall, but in martial arts, it refers specifically to the school or gym where one is instructed in the Chinese Martial Arts.
Gui chui (Kwar Choy): Hanging punch
Gui ma (Kwai Mah): Kneeling horse stance
Guo shu (Gok Sut): Also Kuoshu. Another word for martial arts, often used by Taiwanese. Lit. “national art”
Hao (Ho): Good
Heng Shan (Heng San): The northern holy mountain of China in Hunan Province. Lit. “judge, measure mountain”
Heng Shan (Heng San): The southern holy mountain of China in Shanxi Province. Lit. “permanent, lasting mountain”
He shang (Wo Seung): Monk
Hua Shan (Wah San): The western holy mountain of China in Shaanxi Province. Lit. “magnificent, China mountain”
Internal (In Mandarin: Nei) Referring to intrinsic power generated by the Qi or life force energy contained in the body. In the internal Martial Arts (Neijia), the use of Internal Strength is of utmost importance. Internal Strength is not generated through muscular action, but rather is a product of the inherent binding quality of body tissue. It is utilized in combat through the relaxed coordination of the legs and waist to bear on objects through contact made by the hands, arms, or other points on the upper body.
Ji (Lin): Press, squeeze
Jia (Gar): Family, household or clan
Jian (Jin): Scissors
Jian chui (Jin Choy): Arrow punch
Jiao ma (Gwok Mah): Angled horse stance
Ji ben gong (Gei Bun Gung): Basic training
Jin Na Shou (Lop Sao): Grabbing hand
Jing (Ging): Literally “Essence of life” but used in Kungfu to refer to any skill, strength or ability developed as a result of, and as the goal of, practice in Kungfu. Jing is a generic term that applies equally to the strength or force developed by a skilled movement and to the skill or ability to execute a movement or postural technique correctly.
Jing shen (Jing Sun): Vital spirit
Jin hua Shan (Gow Wah San): A Buddhist holy mountain of China in Anhui Province. Lit. “nine magnificent mountain”
Kai shi (Hoy Chi): Begin
Kan (Jahm): Chop
Kao (Kow): Lean into
Kong fan (Hong Fahn): Aerial
Kua (Gwa): The inguinal basin, where the top end of the thigh-bone (the femur) attaches to the pelvic girdle. The term “kua” refers to the entire inguinal area, including both sides of the lower pelvis and the articulation where the movement of the thigh joint occurs. The proper opening, closing, and sinking of the kua is an important basic part of internal Martial Arts.
Kuai (Fai): Fast, quick
Kun lun Shan (Qun Lun San): A mountain range in Qinghai and Xinjaing Uygur Zizhiqu renown for martial arts
Lan shou (Lan Sao): Barring hand
Lao Shan (Low San): A mountain in Shandong famous for martial arts.
Lao shi (Low See): Teacher
Lei (Loey): Rest
Lei tai (Loey Toy): An elevated stage for free sparring matches
Lian (Lun): Connected, continuous, linked
Lian (Lin): Practice
Lian wu zhe (Lin Mo Jeh): Martial arts practitioner
Lian huan quan (Lin wan kuen): Chain punches
Lie shou (Lop Sao): Grasping hand
Li he tui (Noy Hap Toy): Inside crescent kick
Lie (Leet): Split, crack, rip open
Liu he (Lok Hop): Six harmonies – hand, elbow, shoulder, foot, knee, hip
Lu (Yeung): Yield
Luo han (Law Horn): Also Lohan. An Arhat, a Buddhist who has achieved nirvana, striving for their own salvation, in contrast to a bodhisattva who seeks to free all sentient beings
Lu shou (Luk Sao): Rolling hand
Ma bu (Mah Bo): Also Jong Mah. Horse stance
Meditation: Thought, reflection, and contemplation in order to train the mind, focus the awareness and cultivate the spirit. Sometimes referred to in Mandarin as Neigong or “Inner work.”
Mei hua (Moi Fah): Plum Flower
Mei hua Zhuang (Moi Fah Chen): Plum flower poles. A pattern of poles set in the ground on top of which martial artists practice special forms
Men (Moon): Gate or door. Refers to openings in defense or a specific school or lineage
Mu zhuang (Mok Jong): Also Mok Yan Jong. Wooden dummy
Ni Hao (Lei Ho): A greeting, literally “you good”
Nian shou (Chi Sao): Sticky hands
Nei jia (Noy Gar): Internal school. See Internal.
Pao (Pow): Cannon
Pai: School or system
Pai shou (Pak Sao): Slapping hand
Peng (Pang): Ward off. The power of bringing internal strength from the legs and waist to the hands or point of contact with an opponent, usually from the Taijiquan posture known as Ward Off. The Ward Off posture uses a wide, well-rooted stance and an extended arm, and is often seen as a component in the movement set “Grasp Bird’s Tail.”
Peng Jing (Pang Ging) Ward Off; Ward Off Power
Pu tuo Shan (Po To San): A Buddhist holy mountain of China in Zhejiang Province. Lit. “universal top mountain”
Pi (Pek): Split, cleave, cut
Pian chui (Pien Choy): Side punch
Pian ma (Pien Mah): Side horse stance
Pi tui (Pek Toy): Also Yut Chi Mah. Split
Pu bu (Pook Bo): Also Pook Toy. Crouch stance
Push Hands (In Mandarin Tuishou): A two-person exercise in Taijiquan used to teach students the martial aspects of the Taiji principles. Push Hands practice usually begins using simple, pre-defined sets of movements to teach coordination. As the student advances, emphasis is placed and bringing internal strength to the extremities and maintaining control while moving in contact with another person. Over time, more complex movement patterns are added and constraints removed until Push Hands becomes the Taiji equivalent of “free sparring.”
Qi (Chi): Vital energy, the energy of life. Lit. “gas.” The primordial energy which is the basis for the universe and everything in it. It is the matrix out of which matter and energy are formed, and is expressed as the “life force” in all living things. (see FAQs About Qi)
Qigong (Ch’i Kung): “Energy Work.” Exercises designed to coordinate, develop and/or increase Qi. Although internal in nature, these exercises usually have a physical form or component, leading to the common Western term of “Moving Meditation.” There is an enormous variety of qigong practices, and many Kungfu styles have their own unique form of qigong.
Qian deng tui (Chun Dang Toy): Front heel kick
Qian kun (Kin Kwan): Heaven and earth. Qian and kun are 0opposite trigrams of the bagua. Qian is three solid lines and kun is three broken lines.
Qiao shou (Kiu Sao): Bridge hand
Qi gong (Chi Kung): Also Hei Gung. Exercises to cultivate qi, usually systems of deep breathing techniques
Qi xing (Chut Sing): Seven star
Qin na (Kum Na): Also Chin Na. The Chinese art of bone and joint locking. This art of grappling and controlling an opponent’s limbs, usually by manipulating the joints, muscles and pressure points, is present in many styles of Kungfu.
Quan (Kune): Also Chuan. Literally fist, but can mean martial style or a form.
Release: In internal Martial Arts, to move in such a way that potential energy stored in the musculoskeletal structure is directed outward into a strike, whip, or push. See “Store.”
Ri yue (Yu Yuet): Sun and moon.
Root: A term common to many Kung Fu styles and other martial arts, rooting is the skill or quality of aligning the feet and body so that force is transferred efficiently into the ground, allowing for maximum stability and balance. Many martial tactics in Kung Fu are designed to uproot an opponent in order to deny him or her this advantage.
Ru shi Di zi (Yup Sut Dai Gee): Disciple
Ruan (Yuen): Soft
San Da (San Da): Free sparring. Lit. “loose hit”
San Shou (San Sao): Free sparring. Lit. “loose hand”
San xing (Sam Sing): Three star
Sao tui (Sou Toy): Leg sweep
Si ping ma (Sei Ping Mah): Four-corner horse stance
Shan (San): Mountain
Shang (Seung): Up, above
Shao lin (Sil Lum): The Buddhist Temple attributed for the founding of Zen (Chan) and Kungfu in Henan Province, China. Literally, “young forest.” Considered by many to be the birthplace of the unique Chinese Martial Arts, the Shaolin Temple in Henan, China was founded by the Indian Buddhist monk, Batuo, in 495 CE under the imperial patronage of Emperor Xiao Wen Di of the Northern Wei Dynasty. In 527 CE an Indian monk named Bodhidharma arrived to teach Buddhism to the Chinese monks. Finding the monks too weak to practice meditation properly, he taught them a series of external exercises known as the Eighteen Hands of Lohan, and an internal exercise system known as the Classic of Bone and Tendon Changing. From these exercises were developed Shaolin Lohan Kung Fu and Shaolin Qigong, the fountainhead arts for the many martial systems which were developed or refined at Shaolin.
Shi bo (Sibak): Elder uncle
Shi bo gong (Sibakgung): Elder Granduncle
Shi di (Sidai): Junior brother
Shi fu (Sifu): Master
Shi jie (Sijie): Elder sister
Shi mei (Simui): Junior sister
Shi mu (Simo): Master’s wife
Shi shu (Sisuk): Junior uncle
Shi shu gong (Sisukgung): Junior Granduncle
Shi xiong (Shihing): Elder brother
Shi zu (Sijo): Founder of a system
Shi zu (Sigung): Grandmaster
Short Power: A release of power over a very short distance and time, resulting in a strong, brief pulse of force. Seen frequently in the internal Martial Arts, many southern styles of Kung Fu and other arts such as Aikido, hitting with Short Power involves delivering a stike without needing to draw back or otherwise gain kinetic force or momentum. Short Power was made famous by Bruce Lee’s “one-inch punch.”
Shuang (Cern): Double, often used to refer to double or “twin” weapons
Shuai (Sut): Throw
Shuai Jiao (Sut Gok) “Hold the Horn and Throw.” Considered by many to be the oldest form of Kung Fu surviving today, the wrestling art of Shuai Jiao can be traced back some 4,000 years.
Song Shan (Sung San): The central holy mountain of China in Henan Province, where Shaolin Temple is located. Lit. “lofty mountain”
Silk Reeling (In Mandarin Chan Si Jing): A category of exercises in the internal arts used to develop coordination, strength and suppleness while drawing on internal strength. The name comes from the similarities between the natural coiling or spiraling movements used in the internal arts and the movements used in the process of reeling silk thread. To process silk, a single strand must be pulled and wound using continuous and uninterrupted pressure. Developing and applying internal strength requires the same concentration, and the concept of “reeling silk” is sometimes used as a teaching aid in instilling these sometimes hard to comprehend principles. See Chan si jing.
Store: In internal Martial Arts, to move in such a way that kinetic energy is transformed to potential energy stored in the muscoloskeletal structure of the body. See “Release.”
Sou shi (Sao Sik): Ending form
Sun Jia Taijiquan (Sun Gar Tai Gik Kune): Sun Family Taijiquan. A style of Taijiquan developed by Sun Lutang, a famous master of Xingyiquan and Baguazhang. Sun learned Yang-style Taijiquan and developed Sun style as an offshoot of that system, incorporating ideas from Xingyiquan and Baguazhang. Sun style is characterized by compact movements with little visible coiling.
Taiji (Tai Gik): The fusion of Yin and Yang. See Yin and Yang.
Taijiquan (Tai Gik Kune) Also Tai Chi Chuan: “Grand Ultimate Fist.” A Chinese internal art form that is based in the principles of Yin and Yang. Taiji is characterized by wave-like motion, power releases that resemble shaking or shuddering, and long forms that are practiced with slow, relaxed movements. Today’s predominant styles of Tai Chi are Yang, Sun, Wu, and Chen.
Tai Shan (Tai San): The eastern holy mountain of China in Shandong Province. Lit. “safe, peaceful mountain”
Tai Shi zu (Tai Sigung): Great Grandmaster
Ta mo (Dat Mo): The legendary founder of Zen (Chan) and kungfu. Tamo is short for Putitamo, a phonetic translation of Bodhidharma.
Tan shou (Tan sao): Palm up block
Tan tui (Tom Toy): Snap kick
Tao lu (Tow Low): Form, routine, pattern. See form.
Ti (Tet): Kick
Tiao (Tiew): Jump, leap
Tie (Tit): Iron. Used to preface hard qigong practices like iron hand or iron shirt.
Tie da jiu (Dit Da Jow) Also Tit Da Jow. Liniments made of healing herbs and rice wine used for the treatment of bruises, strains and sprains. Lit. “fall, hit wine”
Tie da zhang (Dit Da Jang) A bonesetter. Many masters specialized in this unique school of healing which combines herbs, acupressure, massage and qigong therapy.
Tie shou (Tip Sao): Sticky hands
Tong zi (Tong Ji): Boy. Used to preface youth exercises, like tongzigong (child work)
Tui bu (Tui Bo): Step back
Tui Shou (Toy Sau): Push hands. A sparring exercise in internal styles like Taijiquan. See Push Hands
Wai bai tui (Loy Hap Toy): Outside crescent kick
Wai jia (Loy Gar): External school
Wu dang (Mo Dang): a.k.a Wu Tang. A mountain and temple in Hubei, famous for internal kungfu.
Wu de (Mo Duk): Warrior’s code or ethics
Wu shu (Mo I): Martial art
Wu tai Shan (Um Toy San): A Buddhist holy mountain of China in Shanxi Province. Lit. “five platform peaceful mountain”
Wu guan (Mo Kwoon): A kungfu school, lit. “martial hall”
Wu xing (Um Ying): Five forms, as in animals or elements. See Five elements.
Xia (Ha): Down, below
Xiao (Siu): Small
Xie bu (Kow Mah): Cross stance or twist stance
Xie xie (Dou Jie): Thank you
Xing Yi (Hsing-I): “Mind Form Boxing.” An internal martial art of Chinese origin characterized by simple, direct body movements, forward, linear motion, and an emphasis on very strong strikes. Xing Yi is based on the Five Elements: earth, water, fire, metal, and wood.
Xuan feng tui (Sun Fung Toy): Tornado kick or flying inside crescent kick
Xu bu (Hoy Bo): Empty stance
Yang (Yeung): Positive aspect. See Yin and Yang
Yang Jia Taijiquan (Yang Gar Tai Gik Kune) Yang Style Taijiquan. The most widely known style of Taijiquan in the world. Yang style in its most popular form was developed by Yang Chengfu, the grandson of the legendary fighter Yang Lucan, who learned his art from Chen Changxing in Chen village. The art as Yang Lucan practiced it is presumed to resemble Chen-style Taijiquan, but Yang Chengfu reevaluated the art and developed it into a distinctly different style, replacing the changing tempos and rising and falling postures with a sedate, even tempo and uniformly large, open postures. The popular “Yang Long Form” consists of 108 postures.
Yin (Yuen): Negative aspect. See Yin and Yang
Yin and Yang: Represented in one of the most widely-known symbols from Chinese culture, the concept of Yin and Yang lies at the heart of most of the arts of Kung Fu. Represented as a circle divided between a dark half and a light, the Taiji symbol represents two mutually complementary forces in nature: Yin, the force characterized as dark, cold, stillness, passiveness and potential; and Yang, the force characterized as light, warmth, action, aggressiveness and expression.
Zhenci liaofa (Jum gow): See Acupuncture
Zhan Zhuang (Jan Chen): “Stake Standing.” A standing gong or exercise in which the practitioner stands motionless in a particular posture to develop internal strength. The internal Martial Arts incorporate several different versions of standing gongs, but all are used to develop a coordinated strength of the whole body for martial purposes.
Zhang (Jeurng): Palm
Zheng tui (Chin Toy): Front kick
Zheng ti tui (Chin Son Toy): Front stretch kick
Zheng tan tui (Chin Tom Toy): Front snap kick
Zhi Shan (Jik Seen): Centerline
Zhong guo (Jong Gok): China. Lit. center kingdom
Zuo (Jow): Go, do, act. Given as a command when beginning an exercise or bout.
Zuo (Cho): Sit
Zuo pan (Cho Pun): Crossed leg seated stance
Ling (Ling): 0
Yi (Yut): 1
Er (Yee): 2
San (Sam): 3
Si (Sei): 4
Wu (Um): 5
Liu (Luk): 6
Qi (Chut): 7
Ba (Baat): 8
Jiu (Gow): 9
Shi (Sup): 10
Yi Bai (Yut Baht): 100
Yi Qian (Yut Chin): 1000
555: Wu Bai Wu Shi Wu (Um Baht Um Sup Um)
Note: when used alone, the suffix “se” is added, i.e. baise “white.” When used as an adjective, the se is not used, i.e. bai he “white crane.”
Bai (Baht): White
He (Fei): Brown
Hei (Hut): Black
Hong (Hong): Red
Huang (Wong): Yellow
Hui (Fuey): Grey
Jin (Gum): Gold
Lu (Lok): Green
Lan (Lam): Blue
Shen (Sam): Dark
Qian (Chi): Light
Yin (Ahn): Silver
Zi (Ji): Purple
Bao (Pao): Panther
Dayan (Dai Ahn): Wild goose
Feng (Fung): Phoenix
Gou (Gou): Dog
Ha ma (Ching Wah): Toad
He (Hoc): Crane
Hou (Hou): Monkey
Hu die (Wu Dip): Butterfly
Ji (Gai): Rooster, chicken
Lang (Lahng): Wolf
Li yu (Lay Yu): Carp
Long (Lung): Dragon
Lu (Lop): Deer
Hu (Fu): Tiger
Ma (Mah): Horse
Mao (Mao): Cat
Pang xie (Hi): Crab
Qi lin (Kay Lin): A mythical Chinese beast, part dragon, part lion
Que (Yin): Sparrow
She (Se): Snake
Tang lang (Konglong): Mantis
Xiang (Jeurng): Elephant
Xiong (Hong): Bear
Xie zi (She Zee): Scorpion
Yan (Yin Gee): Swallow
Ying (Ying): Eagle
Yuan (Hsing Hsing): Ape
Bei (Bak): North
Dong (Tung): East
Hou (How): Back
Nan (Lam): South
Qian (Chin): Front
Xi (Hsi): West
You (Yao): Right
Zhong (Jong): Center
Zuo (Jou): Left
Xia (Hsia): 2100-1600 BCE
Shang (Shang): 1600-1100 BCE
Western Zhou (Chou): 1100-771 BCE
Spring and Autumn Period: 770-476 BCE
Warring States Period: 770-476 BCE
Qin (Chin): 221-206 BCE
Western Han (Han): 206 BCE- 24 CE
Eastern Han (Han): 25-220
Three Kingdoms: 220-265
Wei (Wei): 220-265
Shu (Shu): 221-263
Wu (Wu): 222-280
Western Jin (Tsin): 265-316
Eastern Jin (Tsin): 317-420
Southern and Northern Dynasties
Southern Dynasties: 420-589
Song (Sung): 420-479
Qi (Chi): 479-502
Liang (Liang): 502-557
Chen (Chen): 557-589
Northern Dynasties: 386-581
Northern Wei (Wei): 386-534
Eastern Wei: 534-550
Western Wei: 535-556
Northern Qi (Chi): 550-577
Northern Zhou (Chou): 557-581
Sui (Sui): 581-618
Tang (Tang): 618-907
Five Dynasties: 907-960
Liao (Liao): 916-1125
Song (Sung): 960-1279
Northern Song: 960-1127
Southern Song: 1127-1279
Western Xia (Hsia): 1038-1227
Jin (Kin): 1115-1234
Yuan (Yuan): 1271-1368
Ming (Ming): 1368-1644
Hong wu (Hung Wu): 1368-1399
Jian wen (Chien Wen): 1399-1403
Yong le (Yung Lo): 1403-1425
Hong xi (Hung Hsi): 1425-1427
Xuan de (Hsuan Teh): 1426-1436
Zheng tong (Cheng Tung): 1436-1450
Jing tai (Ching Tai): 1450-1457
Tian shun (Tien Shun): 1457-1465
Cheng hua (Cheng Hua): 1465-1488
Hong zhi (Hung Chih): 1488-1506
Zheng de (Cheng Teh): 1506-1522
Jia jing (Chia Ching): 1522-1567
Long qing (Lung Ching): 1567-1573
Wan li (Wan Li): 1573-1620
Tai chang (Tai Chang): 1620-1621
Tian qi (Tein Chi): 1621-1628
Chong zhen (Chung Cheng): 1628-1644
Qing (Ching): 1644-1911
Shun zhi (Shun Chih): 1644-1662
Kang xi (Kang Hsi): 1662-1723
Yong zheng (Yung Cheng): 1723-1736
Qian long (Chien Lung): 1736-1796
Jia qing (Chia Ching): 1796-1821
Dao guang (Tao Kuang): 1821-1851
Xian feng (Hsien Feng): 1851-1862
Tong zhi (Tung Chih): 1862-1875
Guang xu (Kuang Hsu): 1875-1908
Xuan tong (Hsuan Tong): 1908-1911
Republic of China (ROC): 1912-present
People’s Republic of China (PRC): 1949-present